The hiv drug resistance is the ability of the virus to mutate and reproduce in the presence of antiretroviral drugs. The consequences of hiv resistance to drugs include the failure of the treatment; the transmission of resistant strains of hiv; the increase in direct and indirect costs for both patients and health systems, due to the need to manage other more expensive second- and third-line therapies.
PAHO and WHO recommended a public health approach to the surveillance of the hiv drug resistance based on a set of tools that must be implemented in all countries that are expanding access to antiretroviral therapy.
The WHO’s strategy includes:
- Monitoring of early warning indicators in the resistance to drugs.
- Surveillance of drug resistance of hiv in adults who start antiretroviral therapy (pre-treatment resistance)
- Surveillance of drug resistance of hiv in adults receiving antiretroviral treatment (acquired resistance)
- Surveillance of resistance of hiv in children under 18 months of age
- Surveillance of resistance transmitted in recently infected people.
PAHO coordinates the technical cooperation network on drug resistance for Latin America and the Caribbean, an initiative of international collaboration that brings together skills and mobilizes resources to support the implementation of the monitoring and control of the resistance of the hiv in the region.